In the area of today’s Vietnam, according to youremailverifier, the kingdom of Funan existed in the south from the 2nd to 6th centuries, and then to the north up to the center of the country from the 2nd to 15th centuries, the Cham empire Champa. The beginning of the history of the Vietnamese, on the other hand, is difficult to grasp. They first appeared in the Red River delta area. Its name (oldest form Lac, Lac Viet) is linked to the earliest bronze culture in Southeast Asia, the Dongson culture (1st millennium BC). The first Vietnamese state is the semi-legendary Kingdom of Van Lang with its center in the Red River Delta (7th – 3rd centuries BC, according to mythical tradition founded in 2879 BC), for whose existence archaeological traces give indications. Towards the end of the Dongson culture, the first historical empires emerged in the South China-North Vietnamese region, such as Au Lac (around 257–207 BC, capital Co Loa, a suburb of today’s Hanoi) and Nam Viet (Chinese Nanyue, 207–111 BC). BC, capital near canton). Both were independent from China and culturally still belonged to the Dongson culture. Au Lac, founded by invaders from southern China, replaced the Van Lang empire and was in turn conquered by Nam Viet. This now extended from the area of today’s Chinese canton to about today’s Vietnamese Da Nang. 111 BC It was annexed by China and received the status of a province (called “Giao Chi”). This was the beginning of the thousand-year Chinese rule over the Vietnamese (which lasted until 939), during which there were many revolts out of resistance to assimilation. After the uprising of the Trung sisters (40–43), Chinese rule over the province became more direct.
This was followed by the Sinization of the Vietnamese upper class (introduction of the Chinese script, Buddhism, Confucian ethics). 679–939 parts of today’s Annam and Tongking were administered by China as the General Protectorate Annam ; The capital and seat of the Chinese governor was Dai La (La Thanh, Dai La Thanh, on the site of the later Hanoi) since 767.
The kingdom of Annam
It was only after the collapse of the Chinese Tang Empire in the 10th century that the Vietnamese succeeded in ending the domination of the “Middle Kingdom” and adding several areas to the Empire of Annam (empire name until 1054 Dai Co Viet, capital Hoa Lu, about 65 km south of Hanoi) to unite (968). In 972 “tribute relations” were established with China. An apparatus of officials was formed from the Buddhist and Daoist clergy. Under the early Ledynasty (980-1009) the empire defended itself against China and reached out to Champa.
Under the late Lidynasty (Ly, 1009-1225; an early Lidynasty had been able to establish itself through an uprising in 542-602) the administration was centralized (among other things the introduction of a fixed hierarchy for civil servants, of state exams and a general conscription). The rule of the Li was also a heyday of Buddhism (collection of sacred texts) and art. The residence was Thang Long (literally: “rising dragon”, today Hanoi) since 1010. In 1069 the northern areas of Champas were annexed; Li Thanh Tong (1054–72) assumed the title of emperor from Dai Viet (“Greater Vietnam”, realm name until 1804).
The following tran dynasty (1225-1400) fought off the Mongols (Chinese Yuan dynasty) in 1257, 1284 and 1287. The reformist Hodynasty (since 1400) was overthrown in 1406/07 by the Chinese who conquered the country. After their expulsion, the late Ledynasty (1428–1788) came to power. Their long reign, interrupted only in the 16th century, is considered the golden age of Vietnamese culture and history. In terms of foreign policy, Champas was subjugated in 1471.
At the end of the 16th century, the two powerful feudal families Trinh and Nguyen began to rise. The Trinh administered as imperial administrator, nominally on behalf of the emperor, the northern part of the country with the capital Thang Long, the Nguyen expanded the southern part to an independent domain; The capital was Phu Xuan (Huê) from 1687. The rival families were supported by major European powers (Portugal, France). It was not until the end of the 18th century that the country was divided into two parts. In 1802 Nguyen Anh from the Nguyen family defeated the briefly ruling Tay Son dynasty with French help and ascended the throne as Emperor Gia Long (until 1820). Under him the empire expanded (state name since 1804 Vietnam; Capital Huê) for the first time in its history from the Red River to the Mekong Delta. The policy of his successors led to a confrontation with France, which conquered the southern part of the country by 1867 (French colony Cochinchina). Annam and Tongking were united to French protectorates in 1883/84 and in 1887 with Cochinchina and Cambodia (later also with Laos) to form the “Union of Indochina” (Indochina).